India is a vast country in which agriculture has its own importance.Eighty per cent of her vast populations live, directly or indirectly, on income derived from agriculture.Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry and fisheries accounted for 16.6% of the GDP in 2009, about 50% of the total workforce.Although agriculture contributes only 21% of India’s GDP, its importance in the country’s economic, social, and political fabric goes well beyond this indicator. The rural areas are still home to some 72 percent of the India’s 1.1 billion people, a large number of whom are poor. Most of the rural poor depend on rain-fed agriculture and fragile forests for their livelihoods.The total arable territory in India is 1,269,219 km2, which represents about 56.78% of the overall land zone of the country. Arable land in India is diminishing because of continuous strain from an ever-increasing number of inhabitants and growing urbanization.
The overall water surface area of the country is 31440 km2 and the country experiences a mean yearly precipitation of 1,100 mm. Irrigation represents 92% of the consumption of water and in 1974, it was 380 km2. By 2025, the capacity will probably increase to 1,050 km2, with the equilibrium justifying both household and industrial usage.
India agriculture has an extensive background which goes back to 10 thousand years.